# Cubic Equation Calculator

#### Cubic Equation Calculator

\[ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d = 0\]

A cubic equation is a polynomial equation of degree 3, denoted as ax^{3} +bx^{2 }+ cx + d = 0, where a ≠ 0. The term “cubic” refers to the highest power of the variable, which is cubed. Cubic equations may have up to three roots, which can be real or complex. At least one of the roots must be real. Methods such as factoring and Cardano’s formula are commonly used to find the roots of cubic equations. These equations are crucial in algebra and find applications in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, and engineering.

## Table of Contents

**Features of Cubic equation: **

Cubic equations have several distinctive features that set them apart in algebra and mathematics. Here are some key features of cubic equations:

Cubic equations are polynomials of degree 3 which means the highest power of the variable is 3.*Degree 3 Polynomial:*A cubic equation can have up to three roots or solutions. This is in contrast to quadratic equations, which can have at most two roots.*Up to Three Roots:*The characteristics of the roots in cubic equations are determined by the discriminant b2 − 3ac:*Nature of Roots:*

- If b
^{2}−3ac > 0, the equation has three distinct real roots. - If b
^{2}−3ac = 0, there is a single real root that is repeated (referred to as a triple root). - If b
^{2}−3ac < 0, there is one real root, and the remaining two roots are complex conjugates.

Every cubic equation with real coefficients guarantees at least one real root, a consequence derived from the Intermediate Value Theorem.*Existence of Real Roots:*While cubic equations are assured of having at least one real root, they may also possess complex roots which can involve imaginary numbers. Even when the coefficients are real, the roots can spread into the complex numbers.*Incorporation of Complex Roots:*Vieta’s formulas establish connections between the coefficients of a polynomial and its roots. In cubic equations, the sum of the roots is −b/a, the sum of the product of pairs of roots is c/a, and the product of the roots is −d/a.*Vieta’s Formulas Relationship:*Cubic equations can be tackled through various methods, including factoring, synthetic division, and Cardano’s formula. While Cardano’s formula provides a general solution, it often involves complex numbers.*Solution Methods:*

** Historical Contributions:** The resolution of cubic equations holds historical significance, marked by the contributions of mathematicians such as Cardano, Tartaglia, and Ferrari. These scholars played pivotal roles in developing methods for solving cubic equations.

**How to Solve ****Cubic Equation**

There are different methods to solve cubic equations, and the choice of method depends on the coefficients involved. One common approach is to use the cubic formula which is also known as Cardano’s formula. The cubic formula for a general cubic equation ax^{3} + bx^{2} + cx + d = 0 is as follows:

\[x = \sqrt[3]{-\frac{b}{2} + \sqrt{\left(\frac{b}{2}\right)^2 – \left(\frac{c}{3a}\right)^3}} + \sqrt[3]{-\frac{b}{2} – \sqrt{\left(\frac{b}{2}\right)^2 – \left(\frac{c}{3a}\right)^3}} – \frac{1}{3a}\]

Here, a, b, and c are the coefficients of the cubic equation. Keep in mind that this formula involves complex numbers, even when the roots are real. Also, this formula may not be convenient for manual calculations due to its complexity.

For practical purposes, you can use factor theorem and completing the square equation together.

For example:

\( X^3 + 5X^2 – 14X = 0 \)

\( \Rightarrow X(X^2 + 5X – 14) = 0 \)

\( \text{Where } X = 0 \text{ (One root is found) or} \)

\( X^2 + 5X – 14 = 0 \)

\( \Rightarrow x(x^2 + 7x – 2x – 14) = 0 \)

\( \Rightarrow x(x(x+7) – 2(x+7)) = 0 \)

\( \Rightarrow x(x+7)(x-2) = 0 \)

\( \text{So, } x = 0, -7, 2 \)

From the solution, if the cubic equation does not have a constant term (denoted as *d*), it is likely to factor out the common factor of x which leads to one root x = 0. Subsequently, the reduced equation becomes a quadratic equation of the form ax^{2} +bx+c=0. The solution to this quadratic equation can be determined using one of the following methods:

Factor the resulting quadratic equation into the product of two binomials, expressing it in the form (x−r*Factorization:*_{1})(x−r_{2})=0, where r_{1}and r_{2}are the roots.Apply the method of completing the square to rewrite the quadratic equation in the form (x−p)*Completing the Square:*^{2}=q, and solve for x.Utilize the quadratic formula, which is given by \( x = \frac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2 – 4ac}}{2a} \) to find the roots of the quadratic equation.*Quadratic Formula:*

If x^{2} + 5x – 14 = 0 causes to think that no more break down is possible, you easily can use the below formula to find the other two values of x as it becomes a quadratic equation.

\( x = \frac{-5 \pm \sqrt{5^2 – 4 \cdot 1 \cdot (-14)}}{2 \cdot 1} \)

\( = \frac{-5 \pm \sqrt{25 + 56}}{2} \)

\( = \frac{-5 \pm \sqrt{81}}{2} \)

\( = \frac{-5 \pm 9}{2} \)

\( x = \frac{-5 + 9}{2} \)

\( x = \frac{-5 – 9}{2} \)

% Solutions for x

\( x = \frac{-14}{2} = -7 \)

\( \text{Or, } x = \frac{-5+9}{2} = \frac{4}{2} = 2 \)

% Summary of x values

\( \text{So, } x = 0, -7, 2 \)

% Transition to another example

\(\text{You can go for another example.}\)

% Factoring example

\( 2x^3 – 6x^2 + 4x – 8 = 0 \)

\( \Rightarrow 2(x^3 – 3x^2 + 2x – 4) = 0 \)

\( \Rightarrow x^3 – 3x^2 + 2x – 4 = 0 \)

From this, it is very difficult to find the values of x. In this case you have to use Cardano’s formula which is very much cumbersome and difficult to solve manually. This is why the Cubic Equation Calculator be a handy tool.

Here is a **Step-by-Step Guideline to Use the Cubic Equation Calculator** :

- Input the values of A, B, C and D.
- Click CALCULATE.
- You will find the result in the Answer section.

**Tips and Tricks to use the Cubic Equation Calculator**

- If no coefficient found, leave the respective box blank.
- Don’t use 0 in input box a.

**Cubic equations find applications in diverse domains:**

- Projectile Motion: Calculating the trajectory of a projectile under the influence of gravity involves a cubic equation.
- Circuit Analysis: Determining the current and voltage in complex circuits often necessitates solving cubic equations.
- Geometric Constructions: Constructing certain geometric shapes, such as the trisectrix of Maclaurin, requires solving cubic equations.

In summary, the Cubic Equation Calculator serves as a time-efficient solution for solving cubic equations. It offers a user-friendly approach to find both real and complex roots. Whether utilizing Cardano’s formula or practical methods like factoring, it simplifies the complex process and ensures accuracy. With its user-friendly interface and step-by-step guidelines, the calculator is a reliable tool for mathematicians, physicists, and engineers, streamlining the resolution of cubic equations in various applications.

### FAQ

### What is the simple equation for a cubic function?

The simple equation for a cubic function is in the form f(x) = ax^{3} + bx^{2} + cx + d, where a, b, c, and d are real numbers and a ≠ 0.

### What is the basic cubic function?

The basic cubic function which is also known as the parent cube function is f(x) = x^{3}.

### Do cubic equations have 3 solutions?

A cubic equation has either one or three real-valued solutions, or roots.

### Can a cubic equation have 2 roots?

No. a cubic equation has either one real root, or three real roots.

### What is Cardano’s formula used for?

Cardano’s formula is used to catch the roots of cubic equations.